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Vertigo And dizziness


Vertigo And dizziness is a common problem which many patients complain about. Approximately 30 % people experience moderate to severe  dizziness at some point in life and around 80 % seek medical care at some point. It can affect any age group, like adults  and elderly, more commonly seen in females.


Why does vertigo occur?


It can occur due to two main reasons, one when there  is problem with cerebellum( small brain ) or when there is some problem with ear canals( they maintain balance of the body).The cause can be  positional vertigo, which occurs due to misplaced calcium crystals in the ear canals. Sometimes there can be dizziness due to viral infection of ear canal ( labyrinthitis),or due to trauma to the ear.


Even brain stroke ,when involves cerebellum ( small brain ) can cause dizziness. This is mostly seen in elderly patients who have other problems like hypertension and diabetes. Less commonly, dizziness can occur when there is a tumor in brain. Some medications causing damage to ear can also can have dizziness with hearing difficulties. Cardiac problems like irregular heart beat, anemia ( low hemoglobin) , low blood pressure ( hypotension) and very low sugars ( hypoglycemia) also can cause dizziness.


What happens when a patient has dizziness?


There can be spinning or reeling sensation ,having difficulty walking due to fear of fall. The dizziness is experienced when patient is sitting or standing ,becomes more even on turning the head sideways while lying in bed or even while walking. This is seen commonly in happy ( benign paroxysmal positional vertigo) .during these episodes, the patient may experience severe vomiting, and can even sustain injuries due to fall. The symptoms can last for few minutes to sometimes even few days.


In patients who have dizziness due to brain stroke, they can have additional symptoms like weakness or numbness of hand and leg, facial deviation, difficulty swallowing liquids, numbness of one half of face ,slurring of speech etc. The treatment includes blood thinners and other supportive medication.


In elderly patients, dizziness is accompanied by hearing loss and tinnitus ( ringing sensation in ears),commonly called as Meniere’s disease. This is a progressive disease in which hearing loss becomes permanent and dizziness Wil last for  few minutes with severe vomiting’s.It is important to identify the cause for dizziness and treat at earliest. Neuroimaging (ct brain or mri brain ) is useful to identify clot or bleed, tumor, infection, trauma positional vertigo( bppv) which is the most common cause of dizziness, treatment includes repositioning of misplaced otolith ( calcium crystal) in the ear canal. Vestibular exercises play very important role in reducing episodes of dizziness.


In cases where patient was taking medication having side effects on the ear canal, stopping the medication can reverse the problem if identified at early stage. Urgent surgery is needed in cases where there is tumor in brain or when patient has a big stroke ( bleeding or clotting in brain).Hence, consulting a neuro physician on time ,taking appropriate treatment Wil reduce the disability patient has due to dizziness.


Understanding Vertigo and Dizziness: Your Guide to Wellness


Vertigo and dizziness can be overwhelming and disrupt daily life. Whether it’s feeling like the room is spinning or experiencing unsteadiness, the impact on one’s quality of life can be significant. Nausea and vertigo can often go hand-in-hand, making even the simplest tasks challenging.


Vertigo and dizziness affect millions of people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors. While it’s easy to feel isolated and alone when experiencing these symptoms, it’s important to know that you’re not alone. Understanding vertigo and dizziness is the first step towards better management and wellness.


Common Causes of Vertigo and Dizziness


Vertigo and dizziness can be caused by a variety of factors, including positional vertigo, inner ear vertigo, vestibular migraine, and other medical conditions.


Positional Vertigo


Positional vertigo is the most common type of vertigo and occurs when certain head movements trigger a sense of spinning or dizziness. This type of vertigo is caused by the displacement of tiny calcium carbonate crystals, also known as otoliths, in the inner ear.


Treatment for positional vertigo may involve head positioning exercises, such as the Epley maneuver, which can help reposition the otoliths and alleviate symptoms.


Inner Ear Vertigo


Inner ear vertigo, also known as vestibular neuritis, is caused by inflammation of the vestibular nerve in the inner ear. This can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and imbalance, and can last for several days or weeks.


Treatment may involve medication to help manage symptoms and physical therapy to help improve balance and reduce symptoms in the long-term.


Vestibular Migraine


Vestibular migraines are a type of migraine that causes vertigo and dizziness, often accompanied by headaches. This type of vertigo can be triggered by various factors, such as stress, certain foods, and changes in sleep patterns.


Treatment may involve medications to prevent migraines or manage symptoms when they occur. Lifestyle modifications, such as reducing stress and avoiding triggers, may also be recommended.


Other Causes of Vertigo and Dizziness


There are other potential causes of vertigo and dizziness, including Meniere’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and tumors. It’s important to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause of these symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.


Common triggers of dizziness, beyond the causes mentioned above, include low blood pressure, dehydration, and hyperventilation. Stress and anxiety can also cause dizziness and vertigo.


Next, we’ll discuss the symptoms of vertigo and dizziness and how they can be managed.


Understanding the Symptoms of Vertigo and Dizziness


Vertigo and dizziness can be accompanied by a range of symptoms that can greatly impact one’s quality of life. Dizziness symptoms can vary from person to person, with some experiencing a spinning sensation while others may feel lightheaded or unbalanced.


Common symptoms of vertigo include:


  • Spinning or rotating sensation


  • Sense of tilting or swaying


  • Loss of balance or coordination


  • Nausea or vomiting


Other symptoms that may accompany vertigo and dizziness include headache, ringing in the ears, and sweating. These symptoms can be triggered by various factors, including changes in head position, visual stimuli, or stress.


Fortunately, there are ways to relieve the symptoms of vertigo and dizziness. Simple exercises like the Epley Maneuver can help reduce vertigo symptoms by repositioning the calcium crystals in the inner ear. Additionally, medications may be prescribed to alleviate symptoms of vertigo and dizziness. If you’re experiencing vertigo or dizziness, it’s important to talk to your healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment.


Vertigo Relief and Management Strategies


Some ways to relieve vertigo and dizziness include:


  • Practicing stress-reduction techniques like deep breathing exercises and meditation


  • Exercising regularly to improve balance and stability


It’s important to note that the best way to manage vertigo and dizziness symptoms will depend on the underlying cause. Seeking the advice of a healthcare professional is crucial in determining the appropriate treatment plan for each individual.


prognosis and treatment alternatives for Vertigo and Dizziness


prognosis and treatment alternatives for Vertigo and Dizziness requires a comprehensive evaluation from a healthcare professional, which may include a detailed medical history, physical exam, and diagnostic testing.


Depending on the cause of the symptoms, treatment approaches may vary. Medications, such as antihistamines and anti-nausea drugs, may help to manage symptoms in the short term. In cases where vertigo is caused by an inner ear problem, vestibular rehabilitation therapy may be recommended to help improve balance and reduce dizziness.


For some individuals, lifestyle modifications, such as dietary changes and stress management techniques, may be helpful in managing symptoms. In other cases, surgery may be necessary to correct an underlying issue.


Medical Evaluations and Tests


Medical evaluations for vertigo and dizziness may include a physical exam, hearing tests, and balance tests. A doctor may examine the ear for signs of infection or inflammation and assess eye movements, as well as blood pressure and heart rate, to check for problems with circulation or blood flow.


Diagnostic tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or a computed tomography (CT) scan, may also be ordered to identify any abnormalities in the brain or inner ear that may be contributing to symptoms.




Medications may be prescribed to alleviate symptoms of vertigo and dizziness. Anti-nausea drugs, such as meclizine or ondansetron, may be helpful in managing nausea and vomiting associated with vertigo. Additionally, antihistamines, like diphenhydramine or loratadine, can help to reduce dizziness and motion sickness.


Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy


Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is a form of physical therapy that helps to improve balance, reduce dizziness and vertigo, and enhance visual and sensory adaptations. A physical therapist will work with the patient to develop an individualized program to strengthen the vestibular system and improve balance.


VRT is effective for treating dizziness caused by inner ear disorders, such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and vestibular neuritis. It may involve exercises to improve coordination and balance, as well as gaze stabilization and habituation exercises to help the brain adapt to changes in head position and movement.




In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to correct underlying conditions causing vertigo and dizziness. For example, surgery may be recommended to remove a tumor or repair damage to the inner ear. However, surgery is typically reserved for severe cases that do not respond to other treatment approaches.


It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for vertigo and dizziness. Combination therapy approaches, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications, may be necessary to achieve optimal symptom management and improve quality of life.


Lifestyle Modifications to Reduce Vertigo and Dizziness


Living with vertigo and dizziness can be challenging and disruptive to daily life. Fortunately, there are several lifestyle modifications that can help reduce the frequency and severity of these symptoms. Incorporating simple exercises and techniques can improve balance and strengthen the vestibular system, thereby reducing the impact of vertigo and dizziness on daily activities.


Implementing Vertigo Exercises


One way to improve balance and reduce episodes of vertigo is to incorporate specific exercises into your daily routine. The following exercises can be performed at home and are typically recommended by healthcare professionals to improve balance:


  • Head and Eye Movements: Sit in a comfortable position and move the head and eyes in various directions, including up and down, side to side, and in a circular motion.


  • Gait Training: This involves practicing walking while focusing on a specific target, such as a spot on the wall or floor.


  • Balance Exercises: Balancing on one leg, standing on a foam cushion, or walking heel to toe are all effective exercises for improving balance.


Remember, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new exercise regimen, especially if you have a history of falls or other balance problems.


Reducing Stress Levels


Stress can exacerbate vertigo and dizziness symptoms. Implementing stress-reducing techniques, such as meditation, deep breathing, and yoga, can help manage stress levels and reduce the frequency of these symptoms.


Additionally, getting enough sleep and minimizing exposure to triggers, such as bright lights and loud noises, can help reduce stress levels and improve overall well-being.


Modifying Your Diet


Changes to your diet can also help reduce the frequency of vertigo and dizziness symptoms. Avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine can help reduce the occurrence of these symptoms. It is also important to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water throughout the day.


Consulting a healthcare professional or registered dietitian can help create an individualized plan that meets your dietary needs and helps reduce the frequency of vertigo and dizziness symptoms.


Prevention Strategies for Vertigo and Dizziness


While living with vertigo and dizziness can be challenging, there are several preventive measures individuals can take to reduce their occurrence. Making lifestyle changes can go a long way in managing these conditions.


Dietary Adjustments


One of the most effective ways to prevent vertigo and dizziness is to make dietary adjustments. Avoiding caffeine and alcohol can help reduce symptoms, as can reducing salt intake. Additionally, incorporating foods rich in vitamins B6, B12, and D can help improve balance and reduce the risk of falls.


Stress Management Techniques


Stress can exacerbate vertigo and dizziness symptoms. Practicing stress-management techniques such as yoga or meditation can help manage stress levels and reduce the occurrence of vertigo and dizziness.


Environmental Factors


Environmental factors such as bright lights and loud noises can trigger vertigo and dizziness symptoms. Avoiding these triggers and reducing exposure to strong scents can help prevent symptoms.




Regular exercise can help improve balance and reduce the severity of vertigo and dizziness symptoms. Exercise programs can be tailored to an individual’s specific needs and may include balance training, flexibility exercises, and aerobic activity.


Seeking Medical Advice


If vertigo and dizziness symptoms persist, it is essential to seek medical advice. A doctor can perform a medical evaluation and recommend appropriate treatment options.


By taking proactive steps to manage vertigo and dizziness, individuals can significantly improve their quality of life and reduce the impact of these conditions.


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-Written by

Dr. Priyanka


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